By Joel Aberbach, Visit Amazon's Robert D. Putnam Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Robert D. Putnam, , Bert Rockman

In uneasy partnership on the helm of the fashionable kingdom stand elected celebration politicians bureaucrats. This booklet is the 1st complete comparability of those strong elites. In seven countries--the usa, nice Britain, France, Germany, Sweden, Italy, and the Netherlands--researchers puzzled seven-hundred bureaucrats and 6OO politicians so as to know the way their goals, attitudes, and pursuits vary inside of cultural settings.

One of the authors' most vital findings is that the worlds of those elites overlap even more within the usa than in Europe. yet during the West bureaucrats and politicians every one put on particular blinders and every have precise virtues. In a well-ordered polity, the authors finish, politicians articulate society's goals and bureaucrats carry them gingerly to earth.

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84 Thus, history has bequeathed to American policymakers a system that minimizes institutional distinctiveness and maximizes the propensity for officials throughout the system to share skills and outlooks across the formal boundary between politician and bureaucrat. The institutional division of labor is far less tidy in America than in Europe, and we should expect this contrast to be mirrored in our surveys of bureaucrats and politicians. 85 Strategy of Inquiry 2 Individually and together, senior bureaucrats and politicians have a substantial impact on what gets proposed for consideration by governments, what gets passed into law, and how laws get implemented.

Much more common are alliances that cut across the two roles. 73 Similarly, we do not assume that relations between bureaucrats and politicians are necessarily competitive and antagonistic. ,,74 In order to generalize about the comparison between bureaucrats and politicians in modern government, unobscured by national idiosyncracies or institutional peculiarities, it was essential that our analysis include a number of different countries. S. congressmen tend to be more parochial in orientation than federal executives, but it seems at least possible that this localism, rather than being endemic to the role of politician, might result instead from the extraordinarily decentralized American party system.

38 Bureaucrats and Politicians in Western Democracies One of our collaborators, writing in the late 1970s and analyzing the Swedish data developed as part of this study, observed that the likelihood of greater political instability and leadership turnover in Sweden "compounded by unsolvable economic and social problems, perhaps accompanied by a more visible social unrest" will create a far more turbulent environment and confront officials there with special challenges. 24 In this context the Swedish general strike in the spring of 1980 is less surprising, for it undoubtedly reflects the shock waves of a society whose emphasis upon equality and high wages was thwarted by increasingly high inflation, public indebtedness, and lowered productivity.

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