By Jose Manuel Andrade-Garda

This is the 1st booklet for atomic spectroscopists to offer the fundamental rules of experimental designs, optimization and multivariate regression. Multivariate regression is a beneficial statistical technique for dealing with complicated difficulties (such as spectral and chemical interferences) which come up in the course of atomic spectrometry. even though, the process is underused as so much spectroscopists wouldn't have time to review the customarily advanced literature at the topic. This useful creation makes use of conceptual factors and labored examples to offer readers a transparent realizing of the procedure. arithmetic is saved to a minimal yet, while required, is saved at a uncomplicated level.

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34 Chapter 1 In general, FI procedures are used in conjunction with atomic spectrometry for any of the following purposes: 1. The use of discrete sample volumes to provide improved tolerance of the detector to dissolved solids, organic solvents and sample viscosity. FI provides on-line dilution and a suitable means of handling slurried samples. 2. Retention of the analyte on a solid-phase extractant, followed by dissolution in a clean matrix (such as dilute nitric acid) to remove interferences and preconcentrate the analyte.

FIA can provide a faster and reliable method to relate the absorbance, emission or counts (at a specific mass number) to the concentration of the elements to be determined. In fact, flow analysis presents specific advantages to solving problems related to the sometimes short dynamic concentration ranges in atomic absorption spectrometry, by means of on-line dilution. The coupling of FI techniques to atomic spectrometric detectors also offers tremendous possibilities to carry out standard additions or internal standardisation.

3. , and cold vapour mercury), which allows for a reduction on the interferences caused by first-row transition metals (such as copper and nickel). FI methods may be readily coupled with almost all the atomic-based spectroscopic techniques (including graphite furnace atomisers). 4. Manifolds have been described for the addition of internal standards in order to automate the standard additions method. 5. In addition to solid-phase extraction and chemical vapour generation, other sample pretreatment procedures (including liquid–liquid extraction, precipitation, dialysis and even distillation) can be automated and coupled to the spectrometer.

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