By Manfred Zierhut, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Wayne Streilein

Lately the significance of antigen-presenting cells and their impact at the eyes has been elucidated. we've discovered that just about each constitution of the attention harbors those cells, but they fluctuate of their actions and therefore within the ways that they safeguard opposed to - or perform - ailments of the attention. Antigen-Presenting Cells and the attention summarizes present wisdom approximately ACPs regularly, and their position within the eye, particularly.

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Stevanovic S, Schild H. Quantitative aspects of T cell activation—peptide generation and editing by MHC class I molecules. Semin Immunol 1999; 11:375–384. von Boehmer H, Kisielow P. Negative selection of the T-cell repertoire: where and when does it occur? Immunol Rev 2006; 209:284–289. Iwasaki A, Medzhitov R. Toll-like receptor control of the adaptive immune responses. Nat Immunol 2004; 5:987–995. Cresswell P. Antigen presentation. Getting peptides into MHC class II molecules.

In these examples of tolerance (or at least ignorance) towards certain pathogens, the respective lectin-like receptors are “corrupted” by the binding microorganisms and play a merely passive role, but some lectins possess intrinsic signaling capacity to downregulate immune responses by different means. Signaling by Antigen Receptors In addition to those different intracellular routing patterns of the C-type lectins, direct signaling may also be involved in conveying tolerogenic signals. The DC immunoreceptor (DCIR) (19), for example, bears an immunoreceptor tyrosinebased inhibition motif (ITIM) in its intracellular domain.

25 Austyn JM, Gordon S. F4/80, a monoclonal antibody directed specifically against the mouse macrophage. Eur J Immunol 1981; 11:805–815. Hamerman JA, Aderem A. Functional transitions in macrophages during in vivo infection with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin. J Immunol 2001; 167:2227–2233. Gordon S, Lawson L, Rabinowitz S, Crocker PR, Morris L, Perry VH. Antigen markers of macrophage differentiation in murine tissues. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1992; 181:1–37. McKnight AJ, Macfarlane AJ, Dri P, Turley L, Willis AC, Gordon S.

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