By et al S. H. Lin (Editor)

Between others, chemistry, physics, biology, and fabric sciences have noticeable a quick development in either experimental and theoretical reviews of multi-photon strategies and spectroscopy of atoms, ions and molecules. This ebook is a vital addition to a complicated sequence that includes evaluate papers readable not just by way of energetic researchers in those parts, but additionally through those people who are desiring to input the sphere. Written via specialists within the quarter, the experiences are self-contained to permit readers to know the most important strategies with out a lot coaching. This quantity should be invaluable to energetic researchers in addition to to scientists in biology, chemistry, fabric sciences, and physics.

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2, we can estimate the ionization rate as a function of laser intensity and ionization potential. Next, we consider the molecular photoionization rates. 25,26 Therefore, it is important to explore the molecular photoionization in more detail. It is known that the Keldysh theory can also predict diatomic molecular photoionization rate to a certain extent. However, in order to estimate accurately diatomic or polyatomic molecular photoionization rates, it will be necessary to describe molecular states by including the directional nature of the molecular bond which is the most distinct characteristics from atoms.

2, the phiotoionization rate for the system of randomly oriented molecules is finally given by w0 = 26 3 2I0 ω γ 3/2 2γ 2 + 3 × exp − 1 + γ2 2I˜0 ω 5/2 2 N(γ, ω, I0 , I˜0 , 1, 0) sinh−1 γ − γ 1 + γ2 1 + 2γ 2 . (79) In Eq. (79), the pre-exponential factor N(γ, ω, I0 , I˜0 , 1, 0) is given by Eq. (C1). Note that in Eq. (79) the p dependence of the pre-exponential factors is ignored. It should be noted that the exponential factor for the randomly oriented molecular case [Eq. (79)] is completely the same as that for the atomic case [Eq.

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