By Carolyn D Berdanier

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The literature on intermediary metabolism is immense. 1 Energy Energy is the basis for all life. It must be provided in the food that is consumed so that all of the metabolic reactions that characterize the living creature can occur. Energy is expressed in heat units known as calories or joules. The energy that is used by living creatures or is consumed by them or is expended by them should be expressed as kjoules or kcalories; however, these units are sometimes misused. 1 The international unit of energy is the joule.

No ATP is involved, but a molecule of water and an inorganic phosphate are produced. Rising levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase allosterically inhibit gluconeogenesis while stimulating glycolysis. AMP likewise inhibits gluconeogenesis at this step. Finally, the removal of the phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate via the enzyme complex glucose-6-phosphatase completes the pathway to yield free glucose. Again, this is an irreversible reaction that does not involve ATP. The glucose-6-phosphate moves to the endoplasmic reticulum, where the phosphatase is located.

An allosteric effector may not be involved in the reaction itself but, through its binding, causes a change in the conformation of the enzyme. In the case of inhibition, such a conformational change may hide the active catalytic portion of the molecule. In promotion, the reverse occurs; the business end of the molecule is readily accessible to substrate, cofactors, and coenzymes. 14 is well established, as are the effects of certain dietary ingredients and hormones on fatty acid synthesis in living creatures.

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