By Bruce Mitchell, Fred C. Robinson

Publish yr note: First released 1964

A accomplished creation to outdated English, combining basic, transparent philology with the simplest literary works to supply a compelling and obtainable beginners' guide.

• presents a entire creation to previous English
• makes use of a realistic strategy suited for the desires of the start student
• gains choices from the best works of outdated English literature, equipped from easy to tougher texts to maintain speed with the reader
• incorporates a dialogue of Anglo-Saxon literature, background, and tradition, and a bibliography directing readers to valuable courses at the subject
• up to date all through with new fabric together with the 1st 25 strains from Beowulf with distinct annotation and an evidence of Grimm's and Verner's laws

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Additional resources for A Guide to Old English (8th Edition)

Sample text

High Front Back Low In front vowels the ‘front’ of the tongue is thrust forward in the mouth. It is also raised toward the hard palate and the upper front teeth to pronounce high front vowels (i, y). It is held midway between the upper and lower teeth to pronounce the mid front vowel e. Still in the front of the mouth, it is lowered to the back of the lower front teeth to pronounce the low front vowel æ. As the tongue moves from high front to low front position, the jaw drops. To pronounce the back vowels u, o, a the tongue is drawn to the back of the mouth toward the soft palate, and the jaw drops as one goes from u to a.

Since all 26 Inflexions §42 the endings of stan and scip begin with a vowel, the simple statement made above suffices here. But the qualification is important for adjectives; see §68. §43 Nouns of type (d) – short-stemmed dissyllables – are Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Singular metod metod metodes metode Plural metodas metodas metoda metodum Singular werod werod werodes werode Plural werod werod weroda werodum The masc. nouns therefore follow stan exactly. The neut. nouns remain unchanged in the nom. and acc.

When the ending begins with a vowel, the medial vowel sometimes disappears; cf. the nouns engel and hbafod (§42) and sawol (§50). Thus halii has gen. sg. masc. strong halies. But analogical variations are common, and we find haligan alongside halgan, haliies alongside halies, and so on. In the nom. sg. fem. /acc. pl. neut. halii (cf. lar/word ), haligu (cf. iiefu/scipu), and halgu (with loss of vowel) are all found. §69 Short-stemmed dissyllabic adjectives show forms with no medial vowel more frequently than the corresponding nouns (§§43–44).

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