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Additional resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 5: Neuro-Ophthalmology (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
Note that the sections of the brainstem are in differe nt planes from those of the cerebral hemispheres. from Leigh RJ, Zee (Used with permission as. The Neurology of Eye M ovements. 4 th ed. ) 44 • Neuro-Ophthalmology Upward Eye Movements Downward Eye Movements PC PC riMLF riMLF ( INC CN III INC Midbrain CN III 10 CN IV I MLF RlgJ : I Pons ,, y-group y-group vn >-1- _1 Medulla vn Figure '·28 Anatomica l schemes for the synthesis of upward and downward movements (in red), From the vertical semicircular canals, primary afferents on the vestibular nerve (vn) synapse in the vestibular nuclei (VN) and ascend into the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) and brachium conjunctivum (not shown) to contact neurons in the trochlear nucleus (eN IV), oculomotor nucleus (CN II/), and interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC).
Neurovascular Neuro -Ophthalmo[ogy. New York: Sp ringer- Verlag; 1993. Lasjau nias P, Beren stein A, tel' Brugge KG. SlIrgical Nellroallgiography. 2nd cd. Vol I. Clinical Vascular Anatomy (md Varifltio1lS. New York: Springer; 2001. CHAPTER 1: Neuro-Ophthalm ic Anatomy. uperior pe~osal SinUS \ Inferior petrosal sinus Figure 1·1 6 Anatomy of the cavernous sinus dra inage system. J Nolte J. The Human Brain: All Introduction 10 Its Fun ctional AllatOIllY. 5th ed. 5t Louis: Mosby; 2002. Rootman J, Stewart B, Goldberg RA.
The extra length of th e intraorbital optic ner ve allows unimpeded globe rotation as well as CHAPTER 1: Ne uro-Opht halmic Anatomy . 31 axial shifts withi n the orbit. The central retin al artery an d vein travel withi n the anterior 10-12 m l11 of the optic nerve. The centra l reti nal artery supplies only a minor portion of the optic nerve circulation; most of the blood supply comes from pial branches of the surround in g meninges, which is in turn supplied by small branches of the ophthalmic artery (see Fig 1- 10) .